Podcast #78 Prepositions with Adjectives (4)

Published in the category Grammar and Usage, Prepositions with Adjectives

friendly with/to/toward

Let’s begin the discussion of the adjective friendly by practicing sentences with the phrase friends with. It will make it a little easier to understand the phrases with friendly.

If you are friends with someone it means that person is a friend of yours.

He has been friends with Kelly for over twenty years.

Are you friends with Caroline?

She wants to remain friends with her ex-husband.

Are you Facebook friends with your family?

 

If you are friendly with someone it means that you have a friendly, positive, pleasant relationship, but you don’t consider that person a friend.

I’m friendly with everyone in my office.

Doctors shouldn’t get too friendly with their patients.

He’s trying to stay friendly with his brother-in-law.

It’s hard to be friendly with people you don’t respect.

 

If you are friendly to someone it means that your short-term behavior with this person is pleasant, usually supportive. It has nothing to do with deeper feelings or emotions.

I try to be friendly to everyone.

The teacher was friendly to the frightened child.

The hotel manager was friendly to us the whole time we were there.

The guide was friendly to the others but not to me.

 

Friendly to can mean supportive when you are talking about something that comments on or affects people.

I don’t think this film is friendly to women.

This new law is not friendly to small farmers.

 

 

If you are friendly toward someone or something it means you think or act positively about that person or thing. Very often your emotions are not at all involved. For example, if I say that the government is friendly toward working people, it means that the government has policies that support working people. It has nothing to do with emotions or a personal relationship.

The new city government is friendly toward business.

I don’t feel very friendly toward the Republican Party.

Do you think China is basically friendly toward the United States?

Many Indian tribes were friendly toward the settlers.

 

frightened of/by

You are frightened of something if you have a general fear of it. For example, I am frightened of getting an infection in the hospital.

When you frightened by something you have the actual experience of the thing that makes you afraid. You have a physical or direct emotional reaction. For example, She was frightened by the thunder and lightning.

Let’s compare two sentences. Gary was frightened by the neighbor’s dog might mean that the dog suddenly barked at Gary when he didn’t expect it. The sentence Gary is frightened of the neighbor’s dog means that for some reason, real or imagined, Gary has a fear of the neighbor’s dog.

I am frightened of getting an infection in the hospital.

Gary is frightened of the neighbor’s dog

Are you frightened of dying?

He was frightened of losing her respect.

I can’t understand why people are frightened of new ideas.

You’ve got nothing to be frightened of.

She was frightened by the thunder and lightning.

Gary was frightened by the neighbor’s dog

Many people are frightened by the sudden rise in prices.

I am frightened by laws that let people buy assault weapons.

He was frightened by his wife’s memory problems.

 

full of

The swimming pool was full of water.

The house was full of childhood memories.

That argument is full of holes.

 

If you say that someone is full of it, you mean that the person is saying something that is untrue and misleading. Full of it is related to cruder phrases such as full of crap.

What she described never happened. She’s full of it.

 

If someone is full of himself, it means he has an exaggerated sense of his own value, he’s arrogant, he’s always talking about himself.

I can’t stand listening to him. He’s so full of himself.

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The ESL Aloud podcast lessons are designed for people who want to increase their abilities in speaking English as a second language (ESL).